Unfortunately, nutrition is complex, and it requires understanding physiology which is a tough subject. There is so much misinformation out there, without at least a primitive understanding of physiology it is tough to discern good information from bad information.
A calorie is a unit, based on the measurement of energy provided by food. While we all need a certain number of calories per day, it is certain that all calories were not created equal.
In studying neurobiology, we learn that our behavior and perception stem from neurotransmitters, hormones, receptors, and synapses that constantly create senses and perceptions from information in our environment.
Biology 343 Instructor: Dr. Rinehart To understand recombinant DNA technology and genetic modification, we must first understand DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA, our genetic material, is a double helix made of nitrogenous bases, held together by hydrogen bonds and a sugar-phosphate backbone. This double helix, with antiparallel strands of genetic information, was first realized through […]
An advantage of this recombinant DNA technology is the ability to produce these life-saving treatments for worrisome genetic disorders. A diagnosis of type-1 diabetes once came with an expiration date, now individuals with type-1 diabetes can live long, healthy, lives.
I was pleasantly surprised when I found that I have had readers from over 61 countries! It’s wonderful that people around the world are reading about mental health!
Past research shows risky behavior and impulsivity as a hallmark trait of bipolar disorders and many other, often comorbid, disorders. Impulsivity in this context is defined by the tendency to make decisions based on hedonic, pleasure-driven behaviors even when this behavior contradicts long-term optimal outcome and the lack of the self-control associated with delayed-gratification. Past research has shown specific br
Addiction can occur to many different substances, even when they have no similarities in structure. The common denominator in addiction is sudden increase of the neurotransmitter dopamine and how it affects the mesolimbic pathway (often referred to as the reward pathway).
One of the primary issues is that this stress response evolved for short term use and if used to much it can cause many health issues. The stress-response essentially shuts down the “long-term projects” in order to mobilize energy and increase cardiovascular activity to push that energy.
Of the 4 cell groups of the interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, the 3rd group ( in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area—or PO-AHA), is referred to as being responsible for sexual dimorphism in reference to sexual orientation. INAH-3 is generally found to be larger in the male brain than the female brain; however, this study indicates the region is smaller, in general, in homosexual males than in heterosexual males.
In obese individuals, reward systems were activated during hypoglycemic and euglycemic states without PFC, higher order thought process, activation. The study found that obese individuals may be more affected by food related striatal activation when their blood sugar starts to drop.
EEG patterns and what they represent about cortical activity during wakefulness and the stages of sleep and REM sleep. A little luck often goes a long way regarding scientific discovery. In chapter two, we learned about Otto Loewi, who discovered the role of acetylcholine because of a dream he had. He even stated that if […]